Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were also covered with lead. Lead was also used for piping and for making baths.
Present-day water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes in buildings are now made of copper, brass, plastic (particularly cross-linked polyethylene called PEX, which is estimated to be used in 60% of single-family homes), or other nontoxic material. Due to its toxicity, most cities moved away from lead water-supply piping by the 1920s in the United States, although lead pipes were approved by national plumbing codes into the 1980s, and lead was used in plumbing solder for drinking water until it was banned in 1986. Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, or lead.
Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).
The customer service was top notch! David and Christian were very respectful from the moment they arrived at my home. They were very knowledgeable and honest. Neither tried to upsell me on anything I did not need and they were sure to guide me in the right direction on the repairs that I should have done. They kept me informed on how the progress was going through out the whole process and made me feel very glad to have chosen Elek for my plumbing repairs. A++ overall on the whole experience! The only recommendation I have is that Elek should expand to other states (Michigan).read more
Do you have a clogged drain that won’t go away no matter what you do? Is it driving you crazy? Stop wasting your time with dangerously harsh chemicals that don’t even work! You need to call the professionals at Affordable Rooter Service for immediate assistance and clear that drain once and for all. Our team has specialized equipment and the latest technology to quickly clear any drain that is giving you a problem. More than a decade of experience means we get it done right the first time.
Sometimes you might need your sewer and drain lines inspected. For instance, if your sewage is backed up, then you probably want to determine what the cause is. In instances where we can't physically get to the problem to see what it is, we can use a sewer video camera to go down into your lines and take a video showing us what's the issue then. That way we'll know the appropriate way to deal with it.
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